Game Theory is a branch of mathematics with direct applications in economics, sociology, and psychology. The theory was first devised by John von Neumann. Later contributions were made by John Nash, A. W. Tucker, and others.
Game-theory research involves studies of the interactions among people or groups of people. Because people make use of an ever-increasing number and variety of technologies to achieve desired ends, game theory can be indirectly applied in practical pursuits such as engineering, information technology, and computer science.
So-called games can range from simple personal or small group encounters or problems to major confrontations between corporations or superpowers. One of the principal aims of game theory is to determine the optimum strategy for dealing with a given situation or confrontation. This can involve such goals as maximizing one's gains, maximizing the probability that a specific goal can be reached, minimizing one's risks or losses, or inflicting the greatest possible damage on adversaries.
A Gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within your company's network or at your local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes.
In the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is often associated with both a router, which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway, and a switch, which furnishes the actual path in and out of the gateway for a given packet.
GBIC - Gigabit Interface Converter:
A Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) is a transceiver that converts electric currents (digital highs and lows) to optical signals, and optical signals to digital electric currents. The GBIC is typically employed in fiber optic and Ethernet systems as an interface for high-speed networking. The data transfer rate is one gigabit per second (1 Gbps) or more.
GBIC modules allow technicians to easily configure and upgrade electro-optical communications networks. The typical GBIC transceiver is a plug-in module that is hot-swappable (it can be removed and replaced without turning off the system). The devices are economical, because they eliminate the necessity for replacing entire boards at the system level. Upgrading can be done with any number of units at a time, from an individual module to all the modules in a system.
GDMO - Guidelines for Definition of Managed Objects:
Guidelines for Definition of Managed Objects (GDMO) is a standard for defining object s in a network in a consistent way. With a consistent "language" for describing such objects as workstations, LAN servers, and switches, programs can be written to control or sense the status of network elements throughout a network. Basically, GDMO prescribes how a network product manufacturer must describe the product formally so that others can write programs that recognize and deal with the product. Using GDMO, you describe the class or classes of the object, how the object behaves, its attributes, and classes that it may inherit.
GDMO is part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) and also the guideline for defining network objects under the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN ), a comprehensive and strategic series of international standards for network management. The object definitions created using GDMO and related tools form a Management Information Base (MIB). GDMO uses Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) as the rules for syntax and attribute encoding when defining the objects. GDMO is specified in ISO/IEC standard 10165/x.722.
General Packet Radio Services - GPRS:
General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet-based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users. The higher data rates will allow users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook computers. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and will complement existing services such circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).
In theory, GPRS packet-based service should cost users less than circuit-switched services since communication channels are being used on a shared-use, as-packets-are-needed basis rather than dedicated only to one user at a time. It should also be easier to make applications available to mobile users because the faster data rate means that middleware currently needed to adapt applications to the slower speed of wireless systems will no longer be needed. As GPRS becomes available, mobile users of a virtual private network (VPN) will be able to access the private network continuously rather than through a dial-up connection.
GPRS will also complement Bluetooth , a standard for replacing wired connections between devices with wireless radio connections. In addition to the Internet Protocol (IP), GPRS supports X.25, a packet-based protocol that is used mainly in Europe. GPRS is an evolutionary step toward Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) and Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS).
Generalized Markup Language - GML:
Generalized Markup Language (GML) is an IBM document-formatting language that describes a document in terms of its organization structure and content parts and their relationship. GML markup or tag s describe such parts as chapters, important sections and less important sections (by specifying heading levels), paragraphs, lists, tables, and so forth. GML frees document creators from specific document formatting concerns such as font specification, line spacing, and page layout required by IBM's printer formatting language, SCRIPT.
GML Starter Set is the name of IBM's set of GML tags. GML Starter Set input is processed by the Document Composition Facility (DCF) which formats printer-ready output. A later and more capable set of GML tags is provided by IBM's BookMaster product. GML preceded and was an inspiration for the industry-developed Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), today's strategic set of rules for creating any structured document description language. This Web page is marked up with Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags and is an example of a document that makes use of GML concepts. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) also has roots in GML.
Generic Top-level Domain Name - gTLD:
A generic Top-Level Domain Name (gTLD) is the top-level domain name of an Internet address that identifies it generically as associated with some domain class, such as .com (commercial), .net (originally intended for Internet service providers, but now used for many purposes), .org (for non-profit organizations, industry groups, and others), .gov (U.S. government agencies), .mil (for the military), .edu (for educational institutions); and .int (for international treaties or databases and not much used). For example, in the domain name, www.ibm.com, .com is the chosen gTLD. In addition to the gTLD, there is the ccTLD (country code top-level domain name) that identifies a specific national domicile for an address. (For instance, .fr for France and .mx for Mexico.)
In November 2000, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Number (ICANN), a Los Angeles-based non-profit group that oversees the distribution of domain names, approved seven additional gTLDs. The new gTLDs are .biz, restricted to businesses; .info, open to anyone; .name, for personal registrations; .pro, for licensed professionals such as lawyers, doctors and accountants; .aero, for anything related to air transport; .museum, for museums; and .coop, for co-operative businesses such as credit unions. The group selected these new gTLDs from among more than 40 proposed suffixes. It rejected gTLDs such as .kid, .site, .xxx, .home, .dot, and .site. ICANN is currently negotiating registry agreements with the gTLD applicants it chose.
Proponents of adding new gTLDs argue that they are easy to create and free up new space for Internet addresses. Those opposed say more gTLDs only lead to confusion and pose an increased risk of trademark infringement, cybersquatting, and cyberpiracy. ICANN has approved several organizations to register domain names for individuals and businesses. The group has not yet accredited anyone to pre-register names in any of the new gTLDs, and those attempting it do so at their own risk.
George Boole (1815-1864) was a British mathematician and is known as the founder of mathematical logic. Boole, who came from a poor family and was essentially a self-taught mathematician, made his presence known in the world of mathematics in 1847 after the publication of his book, "The Mathematical Analysis of Logic". In his book, Boole successfully demonstrated that logic, as Aristotle taught it, could be represented by algebraic equations. In 1854, Boole firmly established his reputation by publishing "An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities", a continuation of his earlier work.
In 1855 Boole, the first professor of mathematics at The College of Cork, Ireland, married Mary Everest, who is now known as a mathematician and teacher in her own right. Mary, who was 18 years younger than Boole, served as sounding-board and editor for her husband throughout their nine years of marriage. Unfortunately, Mary's poor choice of medical treatment may have hastened Boole's death. After getting caught in the rain and catching a cold, Boole was put to bed by his wife, who dumped buckets of water on him based on the theory that whatever had caused the illness would also provide the cure. (It seemed logical to her.) George and Mary had five daughters; the third daughter, Alicia Boole Stott, became well-known for her work in the visualization of geometric figures in hyperspace.
Boole's work in symbolic logic, collectively known as "Boolean algebra", is widely regarded to be based on the work of earlier mathematician G.W. Leibniz. Although Boole's work was well-received during his lifetime, it was considered to be "pure" mathematics until 1938, when Claude Shannon published his thesis at MIT. Shannon demonstrated that Boole's symbolic logic, as it applies to the representation of TRUE and FALSE, could be used to represent the functions of switches in electronic circuits. This became the foundation for digital electronic design, with practical applications in telephone switching and computer engineering.
Today, when using a search engine on the Internet, we use Boole's mathematical concepts to help us locate information by defining a relationship between the terms we enter. For instance, searching for George AND Boole would find every article in which both the word George and the word Boole appear. Searching for George OR Boole would find every article in which either the word George or the word Boole appears. We call this a Boolean search.
GFS - Global File System:
The word "Ghost" derives from Old English gast and means a disembodied spirit or soul. In information technology, the term has several special meanings:
1) Ghost, a product from Symantec, can clone (copy) the entire contents of a hard disk to another computer's hard disk, automatically formatting and partitioning the target disk. This product is especially useful where one system is to be replicated on a number of computers.
2) On the Web's live chat medium, the Internet Relay Chat (IRC), a ghost is a vacated user session that the server believes is still active.
3) Ghostscript is a program for UNIX systems that interprets a Postscript file (which is a file formatted for a Postscript printer) so that, using a related program, Ghostview, you can view it on a display screen.
A Ghost Site is a Web site that is no longer maintained but that remains available for viewing. Since many sites don't identify their date of last update, it's not always easy to tell whether a site is a ghost site or just resting. A ghost site is not to be confused with a retired or invisible site (one which doesn't exist anymore and results in a "Not found" message). It's possible to have a ghost site that continues to be useful or appealing because its content doesn't date easily. A ghost site that for some reason seems to have moved to another location is a zombie.
Gigabyte - GB:
A Gigabyte (pronounced GIG-a-bite with hard G's) is a measure of computer data storage capacity and is "roughly" a billion bytes. A gigabyte is two to the 30th power, or 1,073,741,824 in decimal notation. Also see gigabit, megabyte, terabyte, and exabyte.
GIMP, sometimes referred to as "The Gimp," is a freely available open source application for created and manipulating graphic images that runs on Linux and other UNIX-based operating systems. GIMP is distributed under licensing terms defined by the GNU project. You are likely to find GIMP as one of the optional applications that come in any large Linux package such as those distributed by Debian and Red Hat . You can also download it directly. GIMP offers photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring and is favorably compared by users to Adobe's Photoshop and Illustrator applications. GIMP was created by Peter Mattis and Spencer Kimball.
In information technology, a glyph (pronounced GLIHF) is a graphic symbol that provides the appearance or form for a character. A glyph can be an alphabetic or numeric font or some other symbol that pictures an encoded character. The following quote is from a document written as background for the Unicode character set standard.
An ideal characterization of characters and glyphs and their relationship may be stated as follows:
1. A character conveys distinctions in meaning or sounds. A character has no intrinsic appearance.
2. A glyph conveys distinctions in form. A glyph has no intrinsic meaning.
3. One or more characters may be depicted by one or more glyph representations (instances of an abstract glyph) in a possibly context dependent fashion.
Glyph is from a Greek word for "carving."
GML - Generalized Markup Language:
See Generalized Markup Language.
GNOME - GNU Network Object Model Environment:
GNU Network Object Model Environment, pronounced gah-NOHM (GNOME) is a graphical user interface (GUI) and set of computer desktop applications for users of the Linux computer operating system. It's intended to make a Linux operating system easy to use for non-programmers and generally corresponds to the Windows desktop interface and its most common set of applications. In fact, GNOME allows the user to select one of several desktop appearances. With GNOME, the user interface can, for example, be made to look like Windows 98 or like Mac OS. In addition, GNOME includes a set of the same type of applications found in the Windows Office 97 product: a word processor, a spreadsheet program, a database manager, a presentation developer, a Web browser, and an e-mail program.
GNOME is derived from a long-running volunteer effort under the auspices of the Free Software Foundation , the organization founded by Richard Stallman. Stallman and fellow members of the Free Software Foundation believe that software source code should always be public and open to change so that it can continually be improved by others. GNOME is in part an effort to make Linux a viable alternative to Windows so that the desktop operating system market is not controlled by a single vendor. GNU is the Free Software Foundations's own operating system and set of applications. Linux, the operating system, was developed by Linus Torvalds who, assisted by contributors, added a kernel to additional operating system components from GNU.
GNOME comes with an object request broker (ORB) supporting the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA ) so that GNOME programs and programs from other operating system platforms in a network will be able to interoperate. GNOME also includes a widget library that programmers can use to develop applications that use the GNOME user interface. In addition to a desktop version, GNOME also comes as a user interface and set of applications for the handheld PalmPilot.
GNU is a UNIX-like operating system that comes with source code that can be copied, modified, and redistributed. The GNU project was started in 1983 by Richard Stallman and others, who formed the Free Software Foundation . Stallman believes that users should be free to do whatever they want with software they acquire, including making copies for friends and modifying the source code and repackaging it with a distribution charge. The FSF uses a stipulation that it calls copyleft . Copyleft stipulates that anyone redistributing free software must also pass along the freedom to further copy and change the program, thereby ensuring that no one can claim ownership of future versions and place restrictions on users.
The "free" means "freedom," but not necessarily "no charge." The Free Software Foundation does charge an initial distribution price for GNU. Redistributors can also charge for copies either for cost recovery or for profit. The essential idea of "free software" is to give users freedom in how they modify or repackage the software along with a restriction that they in turn do not restrict user freedom when they pass copies or modified versions along.
One of the results of the free software philosophy, Stallman believes, would be free programs put together from other free programs. GNU is an example of this idea. It became a complete operating system in August, 1996, when a kernel , consisting of GNU Hurd and Mach, was added. The FSF plans to continue developing their free software in the form of application programs. A free spreadsheet program is now available. The Linux operating system consists of GNU components and the kernel developed by Linus Torvalds.
GPRS - General Packet Radio Services:
See General Packet Radio Services.
gTLD - Generic Top-level Domain Name:
See Generic Top-level Domain Name.
GUI - Graphic User Interface:
A GUI (usually pronounced GOO-ee) is a graphical (rather than purely textual) user interface to a computer. As you read this, you are looking at the GUI or graphical user interface of your particular Web browser . The term came into existence because the first interactive user interfaces to computers were not graphical; they were text-and-keyboard oriented and usually consisted of commands you had to remember and computer responses that were infamously brief. The command interface of the DOS operating system (which you can still get to from your Windows operating system) is an example of the typical user-computer interface before GUIs arrived. An intermediate step in user interfaces between the command line interface and the GUI was the non-graphical menu-based interface, which let you interact by using a mouse rather than by having to type in keyboard commands.
Today's major operating systems provide a graphical user interface. Applications typically use the elements of the GUI that come with the operating system and add their own graphical user interface elements and ideas. A GUI sometimes uses one or more metaphors for objects familiar in real life, such as the desktop , the view through a window, or the physical layout in a building. Elements of a GUI include such things as: windows, pull-down menus, buttons, scroll bars, iconic images, wizards, the mouse, and no doubt many things that haven't been invented yet. With the increasing use of multimedia as part of the GUI, sound, voice, motion video, and virtual reality interfaces seem likely to become part of the GUI for many applications. A system's graphical user interface along with its input devices is sometimes referred to as its "look-and-feel."
The GUI familiar to most of us today in either the Mac or the Windows operating systems and their applications originated at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the late 1970s. Apple used it in their first Macintosh computers. Later, Microsoft used many of the same ideas in their first version of the Windows operating system for IBM-compatible PCs.
When creating an application, many object-oriented tools exist that facilitate writing a graphical user interface. Each GUI element is defined as a class widget from which you can create object instances for your application. You can code or modify prepackaged methods that an object will use to respond to user stimuli.
A Gypsy Corporation is a company that has it's corporate filings, head quarters, or the majority of it's liquid holdings and or other financial assets in jurisdiction outside of the companies publicly claimed singular national identity, and primary residences for the purpose of sovereign benefits, such as environmental, infrastructure, national security, labor and tax laws.
Gypsy Corporations and typically an amoral organizations, as a standard mode of operandi, frequently behave in a manner contrary to the host nation's best interest, incorrectly and selfishly justified under the errant premises of enriching a non committal, ambiguous group, and multinational grey entity called the shareholder.
A Gypsy Corporation's level of sociopathic behavior frequently visible in the form of i) refusal to repatriate earnings, ii) the importing of labor for jobs that can be performed by the endemic population, in particular for non parity wages and benefits, iii) the out sourcing of services and manufactured products away from the corporate host nation for which the recipients of such efforts reside within said host nation, as a form of expense reduction or the more vulgar, profit margin widening.